Hebrew

Hebrew (/ˈhiːbruː/; עִבְרִית‎, Ivrit Hebrew pronunciation: [ivˈʁit] or [ʕivˈɾit] is a Northwest Semitic language also academically in West called: “Biblical Hebrew”, and is native to Israel, academically in West also called, Modern Hebrew. The modern version of Hebrew is spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.

Historically Hebrew is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors.

Hebrew flourished as a spoken language in the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah during about 1200 to 586 BCE.

Among the earliest examples of written Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE, i e around 3,000 years ago.

Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.

The modern English word ”Hebrew” is derived from Old French Ebrau, via Latin from the Greek Ἑβραῖος (Hebraîos) and Aramaic ’ibrāy, all ultimately derived from Biblical Hebrew Ibri (עברי), one of several names for the Israelite (Jewish and Samaritan) people (Hebrews).

It is traditionally understood to be an adjective based on the name of Abraham’s ancestor, Eber, mentioned in Genesis 10:21. The name is believed to be based on the Semitic root ʕ-b-r (עבר) meaning ”beyond”, ”other side”, ”across”;interpretations of the term ”Hebrew” generally render its meaning as roughly ”from the other side [of the river/desert]”—i.e., an exonym for the inhabitants of the land of Israel, Judah and Samaria, from the perspective of Mesopotamia (with the river referenced to the Euphrates and the Arabian Desert between Babylonia and Canaan). Please, compare cognate Assyrian ebru, of identical meaning.

Hebrew survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy, rabbinic literature, intra-Jewish commerce, and poetry.

Then in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language.

It became the lingua franca of  Jews in Eretz Yisrael (the Jewish Homeland), and subsequently of the Jewish State of Israel.

Modern Hebrew is the official language of the Jewish State of Israel, while premodern Hebrew is used for prayer or study in Jewish communities around the world today.
The Torah (the first five books), and most of the rest of the by Christians so called Hebrew Bible, is written in Biblical Hebrew, with much of its present form specifically in the dialect that scholars believe flourished around the 6th century BCE, around the time of the Babylonian captivity.

For this reason, Hebrew has been referred to by Jews as Lashon Hakodesh (לשון הקודש), ”the Holy Language”, since ancient times.

One of the earliest references to the language’s name as ”Hebrew” is found in the prologue to the Book of Ben Sira, from the 2nd century BCE.

In Sweden you can study hebrew at Lunds University.